Vad säger ekonomerna om migration?

Det hävdas ibland av invandringskritiker att ekonomer världen över inte ser några positiva effekter från migration. Det har också hävdats att vi på migro inte förmedlar “forskningskonsensus” när vi påstår att ekonomer brukar anse att invandring i allmänhet har positiva effekter på mottagarlandets ekonomi, positiva effekter som bland annat Johan Norberg och Fredrik Segerfeldt beskriver i sin bok Migrationens Kraft.

Så vad säger egentligen ekonomerna? Migro tog reda på vad ekonomer tycker om invandringens effekter på mottagarlandets ekonomi:


 ”While a small percentage of native-born Americans may be harmed by immigration, vastly more Americans benefit from the contributions that immigrants make to our economy, including lower consumer prices. As with trade in goods and services, the gains from immigration outweigh the losses.”

Jeffery Abarbanell & mer än 500 andra ekonomer, inklusive fem Nobelpristagare (2006)


”While economists agree that immigration produces net benefits the economy, they debate how to measure these effects.”

Ian Goldin m fl, University of Oxford, Exceptional People (2011), sid 165


“Among economists, there is a general consensus that in broad terms the economic impact of immigrants on a host society is positive.”

Niklaus Steiner, University of North California, International Migration and Citizenship Today (2009), sid 43.


 ”Virtually all economists agree that immigration increases the wealth of the United States. For example a group of economists all of whom had been either president of the American Economic Association or a member of the President’s Council of Economic Advisors, were asked ‘On balance, what effect has twentieth century immigration had on the nation’s economic growth.’ 81% of these prominent economists answered ‘very favorable’, 19% said slightly favorable, not a single one said slightly or very unfavorable”

Alexander Tabarrok, George Mason University (2000)


 ”Data show that, on net, immigrants expand the U.S. economy’s productive capacity, stimulate investment, and promote specialization that in the long run boosts productivity.”

Giovanni Peri, University of California, Davis (2010)


”[M]ost economists believe that immigration has had a significant and positive effect on American economic growth in the twentieth century.”

Jonathan W Moses, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, International Migration (2006), id 112


”[E]conomists, as a group, tend to be pro-immigration.”

Greg Mankiw, Harvard University (2006)


”Contributions of immigrants to economic growth are enormous”

Pia Orrenius, Dallas Fed, Baylor University (2004)


”[E]conomists have wide agreement that immigration, like free trade, brings net benefits to the existing native-born population.”

Benjamin Powell, Suffolk University, 2010


”The most recent academic research suggests that, on average, immigrants raise the overall standard of living of American workers by boosting wages and lowering prices.”

Michael Greenstone, MIT & Adam Looney, Brookings Institute (2010)


“Our review of economic research finds immigrants not only help fuel the nation’s economic growth, but also have an overall positive effect on the income of native-born workers.”

Edward Lazear, Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers (2007)


”The theoretical and most of the empirical work done by economists on immigration and economic growth largely reflects the view that immigration has positive growth implications.”

Carlos Vargas Silva, Migration Observatory team, University of Oxford


”On balance, immigration usually produces economic benefits for the receiving country.”

John Kay, London School of Economics (2002)


”…we should be looking to immigration as a creative force in our economic favor. Allowing in more immigrants, skilled and unskilled, wouldn’t just create jobs. It could increase tax revenue, help finance Social Security, bring new home buyers and improve the business environment. ”

Tyler Cowen, George Mason University (2010)


”In the ongoing debate on immigration, there is broad agreement among academic economists that it has a small but positive impact on the wages of native-born workers overall:”

Heidi Shierholz, Economic Policy Institute (2010)


”[E]vidence suggests that for the United States immigration of high-skilled labor accelerates the rate of productivity growth and immigration of low-skilled labor improves the efficiency of the labor market.”

Gordon Hanson, University of California, San Diego (2012)


”Relaxing immigration laws is the most pro-growth measure the rich countries’ governments could take.”

David Henderson, Hoover Institution, Stanford


”[V]irtually all economists agree that immigration makes us richer, not poorer.”

Steven Landsburg, University of Rochester (2007)


“I think all economists believe from evidence that immigration raises not only the GDP of the United States because we have more people now do useful activities, but it also raises the part of the GDP that goes to current residents in our country.”

Richard Freeman, Harvard university (2007)


”Borjas has been making this case … for more than a decade. But the more elegantly he has made it, it seems, the less his colleagues concur. ’I think I have proved it,’ he eventually told me, admitting his frustration. ’What I don’t understand is why people don’t agree with me.’”

Den ledande migrationsskeptiske forskaren, George Borjas, om sin ensamhet bland ekonomerna, New York Times (2006)


Och några aktuella journalistiska sammanfattningar av forskningen:


”Immigration is, on the whole, good for economies; and right now, rich countries can do with all the economic help they can get.”

The Economist (2011)


”There is near unanimous agreement among economists that high-skilled immigrants benefit the American economy in every possible way … The real controversy is about the economic impact of low-skilled immigrants. But, again, the controversy is more in the political realm. Among economists, there is a great deal of consensus that even these immigrants are a net economic asset.”

Shikha Dalmia, Reason Foundation (nov 2012)


”The emerging consensus among economists is that immigration provides a net benefit. It increases demand and productivity, helps drive innovation and lowers prices, although there is little agreement on the size of the impact on economic growth.”

Edward Krudy, Reuters (jan 2013)


”Economists, as a rule, like to look at the big picture. And the vast majority of the economic literature argues that a more liberal immigration policy would be good for the U.S. economy as a whole. … as these debates continue, it’s worth noting that mainstream economists mostly agree that more immigration is, on balance, good for the economy.”

Christoper Matthews, Time Magazine (jan 2013)


”On balance, nearly all of the economists – 44 of the 46 who answered the question – believe that illegal immigration has been beneficial to the economy. Most believe the benefits to business of being able to fill jobs at wages many American workers won’t accept outweigh the costs.”

Wall Street Journal poll of economists (2006)


”Few areas of economics have provoked as much fruitful research as immigration, and while disagreements remain, there are at least a few things we can glean from that literature: 1) It’s really good for immigrants, 2) It’s very good for the economy as a whole, 3) It increases innovation, 4) The typical native-born probably benefit, 5) Low-skilled immigrants probably don’t see any effect.”

Dylan Matthews, Washington Post (jan 2013)  


”[T]he consensus among most economists is that immigration, both legal and illegal, provides a small net boost to the economy.”

Arian Campo-Flores, Newsweek (2010)  


”[R]esearch has found that immigrants – including the poor, uneducated ones coming from south of the border — have a big positive impact on the economy over the long run”

Eduardo Porter, New York Times ekonomiblogg (okt 2012)


”Most economists agree that a mass legalization program would have a net positive long-term effect on the economy, and that agreement includes even Harvard’s George J. Borjas, whose studies of immigration and falling wages have long been cited by those who oppose more liberal immigration policies.”

Congressional Quarterly (nov 2012)


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